Sunday, May 24, 2020
Effective Performance Appraisals Latoya Cannon BUS303: Human Resource management Instructor: Gwnedolyn McCants-Allen April 24, 2013 A performance appraisal helps with developing information on an employee, which will help determine if the objectives that were set forth have been met, and what needs to be improved to help with the success of the company. This evaluation happens once a year to help the employer determine whether or not an employee is a great asset for the company. Performance appraisal is very important for staff motivation, communicating, and an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution towards the company success. Each performance appraisal must be accurate, and thought through to ensure that appraisals is effective, and to helpÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬Å"Effective appraisal systems link performance ratings to organizational rewards. Research consistently indicates that, to maximize the effectiveness of a pay-for-performance program, organizational rewards must link greater rewards to superior job performance. When employees feel that their rated performance is accurate and reflects the full ra nge of their contributions to the organization, their motivation to perform increases. On the other hand, when employees feel that performance ratings are inaccurate or a function of politics, they tend to perform only to minimum standards, be absent more often, engage in theft, or quit. (Longenecker amp; Fink, 1999, P.1) If a performance appraisal is bias, it can effect an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s working relationship. If a performance appraisal is bias, it could be misleading to the employee; this can hinder the employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s growth within the company. This can effective the employee ability to meet objectives that was set. Ã¢â¬Å"It is also important that the appraisal system be designed expressly to measure and assess performance, rather than for other unrelated or indirectly related goals. Otherwise, performance evaluations will be biased and their outcomes will be misleading for both the employees and the organization. For example, performance appraisals can be used solely to determine annual raises or bonuses instead of as a way to provide employees with feedback about their performance and help them improve. In these cases, managers tend toShow MoreRelatedHuman Resources Management : Human Resource Management1140 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesa business efficiently? Human Resource Management (HRM). Human Resources is the solid foundation that practically oversees the entire organization, whether its managing employees to surveilling the progress of every single department. There are six principle functions that Human Resource take into account: employee relations, recruitment, compliance, compensation and benefits, training and development, and safety (policies/regulations). Over time Human Resource Management has taken a new role intoRead MoreHuman Resources Management And Human Resource Management2123 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesIntroduction The study of human resource management becomes a major topic of the science of management at the beginning of 20th century and keeps attracting researchersÃ¢â¬â¢ attention (Merkle, 1980). The new models of human resource management derive from the advance of management theories and the accumulation of practices and experiences. With the development of global economy, the economic situation of each country deeply affects the world and becomes closely connected. In addition, the needs of customersRead MoreHuman Resources Management : Human Resource Management1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHuman Resources Management Hilti continues to grasp on success and expand globally, but their path werenÃ¢â¬â¢t always well defined. The company began in 1941 and historically theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve kept to traditional strategies when it came to recognizing human resource requirements. In the early 2000Ã¢â¬â¢s, the company established a new set initiatives, aimed at doubling revenue and operating profits. Hilti also recognized that this type of growth would require invigorating ideas to employ human resourcing requirementsRead MoreHuman Resource Management And Human Resources Management941 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHuman Resources Management is one of the most important aspects of any organization, whether it be non-profit, not for profit, or profit. Human Resources Management is what makes it possible for a manager to be able to focus on their work and tasks at hand and not have to deal with lots of unneeded interpersonal activities. They are in charge of correctly evaluating the candidates that the managers will have to work with for the duration of the candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s stay. They are responsible for makingRead MoreHuman Resources Management : Human Resource Management835 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHuman Resource Management Ã¢â¬Å"They humanize the brand and help workforce communities thriveÃ¢â¬ (Who). A human resource management position may be the job for you. Every business and enterprise has a human resource manager, including Starbucks, Disney and even Apple. This job includes planning and coordination, organization, consulting employees and to oversee the work and employees. All the schooling and stress that comes along with this occupation pays off in the end with an enjoyable job. HumanRead MoreHuman Resources Management : Human Resource Management1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Human Resource Management Overview Tanya Phillips Dr. Andrea Scott, PhD HSA 320, Strayer University October 31, 2016 Human Resources Management Overview Human resources (HR) is the different kinds of clinical and nonclinical responsibilities for public and individual health involvement. The benefits and performance the system can deliver depends upon the knowledge, skills and motivation of those responsible for providing health services. Human resource managers donÃ¢â¬â¢t directlyRead MoreHuman Resources Management : Human Resource Management2534 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesIn most cases managers look at human resource management as an expense to a company rather than a source of benefit to the company however, research has proved that human resource management practices can be of greater value. Valuable decisions such as whom to recruit, what package to offer, the training necessary for the new recruits and how to assess employee performance directly affects the employee motivation and as such do affect the ability of the employee to provide products which the consumersRead MoreHuman Resources Management : Human Resource Management95 8 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHuman Resource Management Overview As we all know when it comes to every business and organization that is out there, they all need help from Human Resources to continue to help the company grow. What is human resource management? Well Human Resource Management is the overall process that deals with how Human Resources manages their employees as well as different issues that can come across within the organization. Human Resource Management are in charge of different tasks including recruiting asRead MoreHuman Resources Management : Human Resource Management820 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHuman Resources Management Proper Planning is one of the most important aspects of human resource management. Without proper execution of plans, the particular needs of an organization that are the responsibility of human resources will not be reached, and therefore, will fall short of what is necessary for meeting the goals of an organization (DeCenzo, Robbins Verhulst 2013).There are many facets a human resource manager must be familiar with in order to run an organization. The functions of humanRead MoreHuman Resource Management : Human Resources Management1264 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand research with my family, I decided to go into human resource management, specifically in a hospital. Many people questioned and often said Ã¢â¬Å"Why human resource management?Ã¢â¬ My answer, I chose human resource managers because I believe they are a vital part of a hospitals success. They make the plans, they direct the staff and they coordinate how people work together and where they need to be. Throughout this paper , I will describe human resource managers- what they do, what are the requirements
Wednesday, May 13, 2020
In the essay by Mark Bittman Ã¢â¬Å"Bad Food? Tax it, and Subsidize Vegetables Instead,Ã¢â¬ Bittman offers an idea on how to change the Standard American Diet: making healthy food cheaper and fast, processed food more expensive. Calculating the tax to increase one penny would make a difference in the price and the decision of the people as to whether or not the people will purchase processed foods. With taxes on carbonated drinks and processed foods, profits from the proposal should increase due to the amount of money it would bring into the government and the benefits of a healthier American. BittmanÃ¢â¬â¢s results remove chronic health diseases that reinvent the way we eat. In Ã¢â¬Å"Nickle and Dimed on Not Getting by in America,Ã¢â¬ Barbara EhrenreichÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Also pointing out, Ã¢â¬Å"But since poor people suffer disproportionately from the cost of high-quality, fresh foods, subsidizing those foods would be particularly beneficial to themÃ¢â¬ (Bit tman 295), Bittman understands that most of the jobs that are not getting enough money for their work are the physical, blue collar jobs. Because these jobs are physically demanding, they need as much energy as their job demands. Since energy comes from the food that we consume, Bittman finds it important to consume the better, healthier food. Similar to Bittman, Ehrenreich believes that money is a big issue when it comes to deciding what kind of food to buy. As Ehrenreich concludes her month of working on the minimum salary, she realizes that she ends up with less money than what she starts with. Ehrenreich explains: There are no secret economies that nourish the poor; on the contrary, there is a host of special costs. If you canÃ¢â¬â¢t put up the two monthsÃ¢â¬â¢ rent you need to secure an apartment, you end up paying through the nose for a room by the week. If you only have a room, with a hot plate at best, you canÃ¢â¬â¢t save by cooking up huge lentil stews that can be frozen for the week ahead. You eat fast food, of the hot dogs and Styrofoam cups of soup that can be microwaved in a convenience store (Ehrenreich 253). Showing her understanding of the true life of a low-wage worker, she starts to emphasize. This low-wage cycle will continue. A low wage worker cannotShow MoreRelatedPotential Multifunctional Role Of Sugarcane Output10082 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesIntroduction 7 2.2 Review of Studies 7 2.3 Sugarcane low productivity and a Source of Energy 9 2.4 Sugarcane Bagasse Cogeneration 12 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Data and Methodology 3.1 Introduction 16 3.2 Theoretical Framework 16 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Descriptive Analysis of Sugarcane End Products 4.1 Introduction 18 4.2 Sugarcane Production in Pakistan 18 4.3 Sugarcane By-Products and their uses 21 4.3.1 Uses of Bagasse 23 4.3.2 Molasses 26 4.3.3 Ethanol 28 4.3.4 Sugar 30 4.4 By-ProductsRead MoreExercises for Microeconomics17876 Words Ã |Ã 72 Pageslinking hamburger consumption to heart disease. Buyers in the market for CDs learn of an increase in the price of audiocassettes (a substitute for CDs). Buyers in the market for CDs learn of an increase in the price of CDs. 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Last night you discovered that somebody had accidentally cracked the large water container. Now you are stuck with no water. Although there is a stream nearby, you wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t normally drink from a stream, and you remember that your packets of water-sterilization tablets are in 3 the pocket of your other coatÃ¢â¬âthe one you left at home at the last minute. The three of you are thirsty and have only dehydrated food left, except for fourRead MoreInternational Management67196 Words Ã |Ã 269 Pages The revised or newly added Ã¢â¬Å"Integrative CasesÃ¢â¬ positioned at the end of each main part of the text were created exclusively for this edition and provide opportunities for reading and analysis outside of class. Review questions provided for each case are intended to facilitate lively and productive written analysis or in-class discussion. Our Ã¢â¬Å"Brief Integrative CasesÃ¢â¬ typically explore a specific situation or challenge facing an individual or team. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Annotated Bibliography Reina Garza Diana Hollinger, Russ Sperling, JoAnn Ford (2009, november 5). the state of music education in schools. (M. We will write a custom essay sample on Annotated Bibliography Example or any similar topic only for you Order Now Cavanaugh, Interviewer) * When test scores go down in math and reading, the emphasis is put on those basic subjects to the detriment of other so-called elective courses. And now the combination of standardized testing and budget cuts have put art and music classes in the highest of high-risk categories,Ã¢â¬ (par 1) * Ã¢â¬Å"when you speak with great educators, and look behind the test scores, the lessons learned in studying music, learning to play an instrument, playing in a band, learning to read music, all provide a richness to a childÃ¢â¬â¢s education that will last a lifetime,Ã¢â¬ (par 1). * Because of the declining math and reading scores, it is causing the students to double up on classes. This then does not give them time to take any form of music education. par 12). * Ã¢â¬Å"You cannot cut something for one or two years and say, oh, weÃ¢â¬â¢ll bring it back next year because the cuts are long term,Ã¢â¬ (par 16). * We still have about half the number of music students in music education in K-through-12. And weÃ¢â¬â¢ve never fully recovered and partly thatÃ¢â¬â¢s because we start cutting the things that are the least visible fi rst, which would be elementary music and then junior high music because the things that are most visible are the marching band at the football gameÃ¢â¬ ¦and the choir at, you know, at graduation and those sorts of things in high school. But itÃ¢â¬â¢s like cutting off the roots; the flower only lasts just so long,Ã¢â¬ (par 16 ;amp; 18). * Some schools outsource their music programs. This then makes the teacher work with the students after school. Diana says, Ã¢â¬Å"we canÃ¢â¬â¢t just do a little music. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s outsource this and sing some songs after school. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s not how you teach. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t teach algebra that way, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t teach somebody to read that way, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t teach science that way. You cannot teach anything that way. So itÃ¢â¬â¢s very important that you have a structured, you know, step-by-step education so that students have access. Understanding how to read music and to sing music and to play music is access. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s social justice,Ã¢â¬ (par 30). Harken, J. V. (2003, august 20). budgets cut student expeirence . Retrieved may 24, 2012, from CNN: http://articles. cnn. com/2003-08-13/politics/sprj. sch. cuts_1_budget-cuts-music-or-science-math? _s=PM:EDUCATION * Ã¢â¬Å"If a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s talents lie in art, or music or science, they lose out,Ã¢â¬ (par 8). Schools believe that math and reading are the most important subjects, so if the students have declining test scores, then all the other programs are cut while math and reading/English are funded even more. (par 7 amp; 8) * Ã¢â¬Å"For many kids, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why they come to school, for the band or chorus or sports. Ã¢â¬ (par 18). * Students interested in developing business or music skills would have to look outside the school for programs or private tutors they go to on their own time, Johnson said. People have to compensate. If the student canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford it, well, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the downside to this situation. Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ (par 25). Houck, Olivia. (2009). 2009-10: Against Cutting Art and Music Programs in Schools. Retrieved may 24, 2012, from morrison institute: http://morrisoninstitute. asu. edu/young-stewards-of-public-policy/essays/2009-10-the-voting-problem * Ã¢â¬Å"Overall, reports have shown that the percentage of kids with access to music has declined 50% in the past five years,Ã¢â¬ (par 1). Ã¢â¬Å"The study of music, theatre, and other forms of art have been shown to stimulate other parts of studentÃ¢â¬â¢s minds and even keep them out of gangs and other harmful situations,Ã¢â¬ (par 1). * Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"95% percent of Americans believe that music is a key-component in a childÃ¢â¬â¢s well-rounded education, 80% percent of respondents agreed that music makes the participants smarter; 78% believe that learning a musical instrument helps students perform better in other subject areas; and 88% believe participation in music helps teach children disciplineÃ¢â¬ (Hurley 3),Ã¢â¬ (par 1). Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Within two to three years, every school that cuts arts showed a decrease in morale and attendance and an increase in vandalism and disruptions, and within three years most of them had to add extensive disciplinary staff to account for the problems that were created by not providing the full range of experiences that human beings needÃ¢â¬ (Hurley 2). Ã¢â¬ (par 3). Nelson, TJ. (2005, march 5). dumbing down, the dwindling funding of the arts. Retrieved may 24, 2012, from worldmusiccentral. org: http://worldmusiccentral. org/article. php/2005030922083613 Ã¢â¬Å"One Ipswich high school senior, Reeve Pierson, calculated the participation in his school and found that out of 629 students 445 participated in the music and art programs,Ã¢â¬ (par 6). * Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ Students with coursework/experience in music performance and music appreciation scored higher on the SAT: students in music performance scored 57 points higher on the verbal and 41 points higher on the math, and students in music appreciation scored 63 points higher on verbal and 44 points higher on the math, than did students with no arts participationÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬â College-Bound Seniors National Report: Profile of SAT Program Test Takers. Princeton, NJ: The College Entrance Examination Board, 2001Ã¢â¬ (par 8). * Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬Å"Secondary students who participated in band or orchestra reported the lowest lifetime and current use of all substances (alcohol, tobacco, illicit drugs). Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Texas Commission on Drug and Alcohol Abuse Report. Reported in Houston Chronicle, January 1998Ã¢â¬ (par 9) * Ã¢â¬Å"*Thirty-six out of 57 states and territories in the US plan to slash funding for culture. Estimates suggest that funds will be reduced from $355 million to $274 million in the 2004 fiscal year according to Americans for the Arts. Florida governor, Jeb Bush, reduced his stateÃ¢â¬â¢s arts funding from $28 million to $5. 9 million. ColoradoÃ¢â¬â¢s arts budget shriveled to a mere $200,000. Ã¢â¬ (par 13). * Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s something utterly captivating in listening to the musical rendition of Ã¢â¬Å"SheÃ¢â¬â¢ll Be Coming Round the MountainÃ¢â¬ by a bunch of first-graders on kazoos and percussion instruments. What kind of society will we be without the squawky notes of Ã¢â¬Å"GreensleevesÃ¢â¬ emanating from an open window as a fourth-grader practices on a black, plastic recorder? What kind of cultural identity do we preserve and pass on without a music education? What happens to us if we become a country without a culture, without a voice, without a song? Ã¢â¬ (par 16). * Ã¢â¬Å"I guess Air Force One should invest in a good sound system and a CD of Sousa marches, because a future president might be stepping of the plane into the adulation of crowds, not to the strains of Ã¢â¬Å"Hail to the ChiefÃ¢â¬ played by a school orchestra but to a bunch of kids holding up multiplication table flashcards,Ã¢â¬ (par 17). music Statistics/music advocacy quotations. n. d. ). Retrieved may 24, 2012, from heritageweb. org: http://www. heritageweb. org/~sanderson/MusicAdvocacyStatsandQuotes. pdf | | * Students with good rhythmic ability can more easily detect and differentiate between patterns in math, music, science, and the visual arts. -Ã¢â¬Å"Rhythm seen as key to manÃ¢â¬â¢s evolutionary development,Ã¢â¬ TCAMS Professional resource Center, 2000. * A 1997 study of elementary students in arts-based programs concluded that studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ math test scores rose as their time in arts education classes increased. Ã¢â¬Å"Arts Exposure and Class Performance,Ã¢â¬ Phi Delta Kappan, October, 1998. * The arts are recognized as a core subject in the Goals 2000: Educate America Act approved by both houses of Congress in 1994. -National Education Goals Panel * Ã¢â¬Å"In every successful business. there is one budget line that never gets cut. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s called Ã¢â¬Å"Product DevelopmentÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â and itÃ¢â¬â¢s the key to any companyÃ¢â¬â¢s future growth. Music education is critical to the product development of this nationÃ¢â¬â¢s most important resource Ã¢â¬â our children. -John Sykes Ã¢â¬â President, VH1 * Ã¢â¬Å"Music is about communication, creativity, and cooperation, and by studying music in schoo l, students have the opportunity to build on these skills, enrich their lives, and experience the world from a new perspective. Ã¢â¬ -Bill Clinton, Former President of the United States of America * Ã¢â¬Å"The arts are an essential element of education, just like reading, writing, and arithmetic. music, dance, painting, and theater are all keys that unlock profound human understanding and accomplishment. Ã¢â¬ -William Bennett, Former US Secretary of Education | How to cite Annotated Bibliography Example, Papers
Monday, May 4, 2020
Taking up NSTP 1 is fun and informative at the same time. I have learned many things from the beginning of the lecture about the bill of rights, up to the last meeting . Also I learned much about the environment and known whatever I learned there, will never be forgotten just that I should be able to apply the knowledge I have acquired. Before , I thought that disaster just cause destruction to human lives and material but the truth is it also disrupts the function of society.I also found out that the reason why disaster occur is not onlybecause of the climate change or unbalanced ecosystem, but also because of the Ã¢â¬Å"low level of political and social organization Ã¢â¬Å" , which has been discussed by Mr. Abraham so I realized, in order to prevent disasters, we should be united, organized and start doing good things for the environment.Ihad a lots of fun listening to the lecture about drugs too, although I have completely made up my mind not to take any harmful dgurs, the informatio have lheard will be of great help. We will write a custom essay sample on Nstp 1 or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page I will be more careful not to trust strangers, now that I know that there is ROHYPNOL, the Ã¢â¬ËDate Rape DrugÃ¢â¬â¢ which cause amnesia, fatigue, dizziness to the victim. I really enjoyed the lessons about Disaster and Risk Management, I learned about how to be safe in times of disasters like earthquakes,tsunami and many more.In NSTP 1 , I have been taught to be responsible adult. The last lecture encourage me more participate since it is in factone of our basic human rights which we often neglect. I also made up my mind that I will be taking for NSTP II because I want to help children and share what I know without asking for anything in return. By doing simple things, we can contribute to our nationÃ¢â¬â¢s development because remember that big things come from small things.
Sunday, March 29, 2020
Buddha image is one of the most prominent and the origin of Asian art work. This image is inclined more towards Buddhist religion which most HinduÃ¢â¬â¢s believe (Krishan 62). Before Buddha image came in to existence, Buddhist never used to worship images or forms.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Buddha Image in Asian Art Work specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The man behind the religion was called Buddha Vakali and he was devoted to teaching people concerning this religion. He taught them against worshiping images since he made them believe that God was formless (Coomaraswamy para. 8) Until the 1st century AD, Buddhist followers remained faithful to his teachings and never used to worship the Buddha image. However, after Buddha Vakali passed on, some of his followers were worried that he would never come back. One of the BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s disciples Maudgalyayana invested magic and sent some thirty two artists up to heaven in order to capture the image of the god Buddha used to teach them about. It is therefore believed that the author of Buddha image was Shakyamuni, one of the artists sent to heaven by Maudgalyayana who can be considered as the patron of this art work. When Shakyamuni together with the other thirty one artists went to heaven, they captured the image and the likeness of Buddha in a five feet figure curved out of sandalwood. When they returned from heaven, it is recorded that the image was such perfect that it rose up to greet Shakyamuni. It is said that the first person start worshiping this image contrary to Buddha teachings was king Vadya of Vatsa, yet he was a very devoted follower (Coomaraswamy para. 8). Since the first Buddha image was curved, many artists have curved and painted a variety of images according to a personÃ¢â¬â¢s belief of how Buddha is supposed to look. Most of these images resemble human beings whereby their major purpose is worship and continuity of the religion (Krishan 62). Buddha images are usually made for Buddha followers and they are usually kept in their houses of worship to ensure that every person is in a position to worship without limit. The first Buddha image was curved in sandalwood though this has been changing with time (Coomaraswamy para. 8). Today, most of these images are made of precious stones though there is a wide variety of wooden images since the image is regarded with a lot of respect due to its religious significance. However, most artists have turned this in to business whereby they finance projects for making Buddha images after which they sell them in order to recover their money as well as making some profits.Advertising Looking for essay on art and design? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More People have come up with various postures of Buddha sculptures depending on the belief of the events that took place in his life on a particular. There are seven postures of the image representing the events that took place each day (Thong para. 1). All the Buddha images carry the message of BuddhaÃ¢â¬â¢s superiority as the only image that should be worshipped on land. Most Buddhists have responded positively to the work of the first person who came up with this image since they have continued worshiping the image and it has spread out to many parts of Asia. The various Buddha images are a great investment in Asian Art work. Their popularity across the world has enabled many people see the potential that lies among Asians and their ability to communicate through art. Apart from Buddha images, Asian artwork is recognized worldwide and generates a lot of revenue to the Asians both locally and across the geographic boundaries. Work Cited Coomaraswamy, Anada. Origin of Buddha Image. Controversial History, 2009. Web. http://controversialhistory.blogspot.com/2009/03/origin-of-buddha-image.html Krishan, Yuvraj. The Buddha Image: Origin and Development. New Delhi, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1996. Print. Thong, Ang. Buddha Images for the Seven Days of the Week. Buddha Images, 2011. Web. http://www.buddha-images.com/seven-days.asp This essay on Buddha Image in Asian Art Work was written and submitted by user Jaylee Craig to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Saturday, March 7, 2020
How to Trace Your Family Tree in Mexico Due to hundreds of years of meticulous record-keeping, Mexico offers a wealth of church and civil records for the genealogical and historical researcher. It is also the homeland of one in every 10 Americans. Learn more about your Mexican heritage, with these steps for tracing your family tree in Mexico. Mexico has a rich history stretching back to ancient times. Archaeology sites around the country speak of ancient civilizations flourishing in what is present-day Mexico thousands of years before the arrival of the first Europeans, such as the Olmec, thought by some to be the mother culture of Mesoamerican civilization, who lived around 1200 to 800 BC, and the Maya of the Yucatan Peninsula who flourished from about 250 BC to 900 AD. Spanish Rule During the early 15th century the fierce Aztecs rose to power, maintaining dominance over the region until they were defeated in 1519 by Hernan Cortes and his group of just over 900 Spanish explorers. Called New Spain, the territory then came under control of the Spanish Crown. Spanish kings encouraged the exploration of new lands by granting conquistadors the right to establish settlements in exchange for one-fifth (el quinto real, or the royal fifth) of any treasure discovered. The colony of New Spain rapidly outgrew the initial borders of the Aztec Empire, encompassing all of present-day Mexico, as well as Central America (as far south as Costa Rica), and much of the present-day southwest United States, including all or parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, Utah and Wyoming. Spanish Society The Spanish continued to rule over most of Mexico until 1821 when Mexico achieved status as an independent country. During that time, the availability of inexpensive land attracted other Spanish immigrants who sought the social status afforded to land owners by Spanish society at that time. These permanent settlers gave rise to four distinct social classes: Peninsulars, or the ruling class, were people born in Spain or Portugal. To maintain the line, some men sent their wives back to Spain to give birth, to ensure that their children also achieved peninsular status.Criollos were people of pure Spanish descent who were born in New Spain. It was this group, with the support of mestizos and other lower classes, that initiated the 11 years of rebellion to claim independence for Mexico in 1821, in response to increasing taxes and regulations by the Crown.Mestizos were people of mixed blood (generally used to identify Spanish/Indian ancestry) who ranked lower than the criollos in New SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s social hierarchy. Most Mexicans today (more than 65%) are descended from this group.Indigenas are the native Indians of Mexico. Prior to Mexican independence, several classifications were commonly used by the Spanish to identify people with Indian ancestry, including: indio (Indian), mestizo (half Indian/half white), zambo (half-Indian/half African ) and lobo (three-quarters African/one-quarter Indian). While Mexico has welcomed many other immigrants to its shores, the majority of its population descends from the Spanish, the Indians, or are of mixed Spanish and Indian heritage (mestizos). Blacks and some Asians are also part of the Mexican population. Where Did They Live? To conduct a successful family history search in Mexico, youll first need to know the name of the town where your ancestors lived, and the name of the municipio in which the town was located. It is also helpful to be familiar with the names of nearby towns and villages, as your ancestors may have left records there as well. As with genealogy research in most countries, this step is essential. Your family members may be able to provide you with this information but, if not, there are steps to help you find the birthplace of the ancestor. The Federal Republic of Mexico is made up of 32 states and the Distrito Federal (federal district). Each state is then divided into municipios (equivalent to a U.S. county), which may include several cities, towns and villages. Civil records are kept by the municipio, which church records will generally be found in the town or village. Civil Records in Mexico (1859 - present) Civil registration records in Mexico are government-required records of births (nacimientos), deaths (defunciones) and marriages (matrimonios). Known as Registro Civil, these civil records are an excellent source of names, dates and vital events for a large percentage of the population living in Mexico since 1859. The records are not complete, however, as people did not always comply, and civil registration wasnt strictly enforced in Mexico until 1867. Civil registration records in Mexico, with the exception of the states of Guerrero and Oaxaca, are maintained at the municipio level. Many of these civil records have been microfilmed by the Family History Library, and can be researched through your local Family History Center. Digital images of these Mexico Civil Registration Records are starting to be made available online for free at FamilySearch Record Search. You can also obtain copies of civil registration records in Mexico by writing to the local civil registry for the municipio. Older civil records, however, may have been transferred to the municipio or the state archive. Ask that your request be forwarded, just in case! Church Records in Mexico (1530 - present) Records of baptism, confirmation, marriage, death, and burial have been maintained by individual parishes in Mexico for almost 500 years. These records are especially useful for researching ancestors prior to 1859, when civil registration went into effect, although they may also provide information on events after that date that can not be found in the civil records. The Roman Catholic church, established in Mexico in 1527, is the predominant religion in Mexico. To research your ancestors in Mexican church records, youll first have to know the parish and city or town of residence. If your ancestor lived in a small town or village without an established parish, use a map to find nearby towns with a church that your ancestors may have attended. If your ancestor lived in a large city with several parishes, their records may be found in more than one parish. Begin your search with the parish where your ancestor lived, then expand the search to nearby parishes, if necessary. Parish church registers may record information on several generations of the family, making them an extremely valuable resource for researching a Mexican family tree. Many church records from Mexico are included in the Mexican Vital Records Index from FamilySearch.org. This free, online database indexes almost 1.9 million birth and christening and 300,000 marriage records from Mexico, a partial listing of vital records covering the years 1659 to 1905. Additional indexes of Mexican baptisms, marriages and burials from selected localities and time periods are available on FamilySearch Record Search, along with selected Catholic Church records. The Family History Library has most Mexican church records prior to 1930 available on microfilm. Search the Family History Library Catalog under the town in which your ancestors parish was located to learn what church records are available. These can then be borrowed from and viewed at your local Family History Center. If the church records you seek are not available through the Family History Library, youll need to write directly to the parish. Write your request in Spanish, if possible, including as many details as possible about the person and records you seek. Ask for a photocopy of the original record, and send a donation (around $10.00 usually works) to cover research time and copies. Most Mexican parishes accept U.S. currency in the form of cash or a cashiers check.
Thursday, February 20, 2020
Camera - Essay Example Until the execution the power is in the hands of the state, but later, the forces which control the action and the reaction are out of control, more in the hands of the public, the media, and the system. The impact which a picture has on the audience and that which a government has on the masses are greatly subject to individual response and collective reaction. "Like the state, the camera is never neutral. The representations it produces are highly coded and the power it yields is never its own" ("The Burden of Representation: Essays of Photographies and Histories" (John Tagg 2006). The production of the picture taken by the camera is always subject to the point of the view of the photographer. The camera is more powerful than the cameraman. The biases, opinions of the photographer are captured with more depth and detail through the lens of the camera. The picture contains in it messages which are very subjective. The impact is unforeseen. The range with which a camera covers is wider than the vision of the photographer. Many times the impact is more than the expectation. What the eyes see is the expression of influences: perceptual, experiential, and epistemological (John Tagg 2006). The vulnerability and the rawness of the picture are beautifully explained in the book "Raw Histories" by Elizabeth Edwards where she passionately reveals the power which a picture has to shape the history of a government, system or the state. The dynamic role of camera to project different perspective is where the camera's view intersects with the state's vision. Anthropological photographs as 'history' can offer insights into the role of governance, as well as articulate history of past actions. The rawness of interpretation and the ambiguity of perception with which a photograph is loaded add complexity to it as a form of art. It exposes the vulnerability in all of us in framing, containing and releasing their research potential. (Berg Publishers: Raw Histories. 2002). In the field of history of photography and critical theory John Tagg's work is remarkable. His work "The Burden of Representation: Essays of Photographies and Histories" "( John Tagg. 2006). focuses on the importance of a photographic image in the form of archive and display in the museum. His collection of essays concentrates on the history of photography and analysis of its impact on the audience. He cross examines the intersection of power and photographic image. Image can trigger lasting impact on the state as well as the world scene. Camera as an impartial recorder of facts plays an important role in documentation, documentary and governance. His essay powerfully brings out the critical role of camera in projecting an image of the state, for the people of the state. It establishes direct connection between the ruler and the ruled, which crosses over with time with the change of events. Allan Sekula is a photographer, filmmaker, writer and critic In his essay "The Body and the Archive," Alan Sekula examines that the archive is rooted in the culture of this century. The operation of the archive became a device for regulatory control. It led to class and classification, as the basis for photographic interpretation. The apparatus of the camera played a key role in